Airstream Mechanism 構音
發聲類型 時序協調
共鳴 音質與附屬語言的描述

Airstream Mechanism

1 Initiation Types

The production of speech-sounds involves two essential functional components: initiation and articulation. An activity that initiates a flow of air, and is consequently called initiation (or airstream mechanism). The following are the methods of initiating a flow of air in and through the vocal tract that is, some form of initiation. There are different varieties of initiation which includes: pulmonic initiation, velaric initiation, and glottalic initiation.

1.1 Pulmonic initiation

Pulmonic initiation involves a stream of air forced out of the lungs under pressure, propelled up the windpipe and out through the mouth. When pulmonic air flows outwards, it is said to be egressive. The vast majority of speech sounds are made using pulmonic egressive air. It is also possible though not usual to speak while the air stream is flowing inwards to the lungs. (pulmonic ingressive air) We occasionally hear this air stream used in a language when someone is trying to talk while laughing or crying, or when out of breath. An alternate use of egressive and ingresssive air stream is sometimes heard when peoplea are counting rapidly, under their breath. But ingressive speech is of poor quality, muffled, and croaky, and many people find it unpleasnat to listen to. It is never put to routine use in everyday speech.

1.2 Glottalic initiation

If the glottis is tightly closed, and there is at the same time a closure in the mouth, say between the back of the tongue and soft palate ( a [k]-closure), a small quantity of air will be trapped between the closed glottis and oral closure. If, now, the larynx is slightly raised, the air trapped between the closed glottis and the oral closure will be compressed. Then, if the oral closure is suddenly released, the entrapped high-pressure air will momentarily bust forth in a short sharp explosion. Here the air-compression, and eventual airflow when the articulatory closure is released, are initiated by the larynx. The larynx is thus the initiator, and because of the importance of the glottal closure within the larynx this type of initiation is called glottalic.

1.3 Velaric initiation

The term velaric refers to a quite different mode of speech production: instead of using an airstream generated by the lungs, velaric sounds use air generated by a closure in velar position. The back of the tongue is raised against the velum, and articulations are made further forward by the lips or front parts of the tongue. These sounds are usually called CLICKS, and have a distinctive role in some languages, such as Zulu.

2 Directions of airstream

The direction of the initiatiatory movement may be one that generates positive pressure and initiates an outgoing or egressive airflow(pressure), or one that generates negative pressure and initiates an inflowing, or ingressive, airflow(suction).

2.1 Egressive

A term is used in the PHONETIC classification of speech sounds, referring to all sounds produced using an outwards-moving airstream. The vast majority speech sounds are made with egressive air from the lungs (pulmonic air). A few consonants are produced using an egressive airflow originating at the larynx: these are known a EJECTIVE or ‘glottalic’ sounds, such as [t’ , s’].

2.2 Ingressive

A term is used in the PHONETIC classification of speech sounds, referring to all sounds produced using an inwards-moving airstream. Ingressive sounds are often heard incidentally, as when one speaks while breathing in, when out of breath or vocalizes upon a sudden intake of breath when expressing pain or surprise. Two types of ingressive sounds are used as part of the PHONEMIC systems of some languages: implosive consonants, such as [g], made by an inward flow of air in conjunction with glottal vibration.





1 本嗓



圖片來源:Schneiderman 1984, p.76.




氣嗓是正常的聲帶振動加上一些連續的亂流。 聲帶在振動週期時,聲門閉合不完全。通常在聲帶振動時,杓狀軟骨會稍微分開。據Catford的說法,氣嗓是高氣流速率的一種發聲模式。發聲時,聲帶有如在氣流中上下前後相互拍動。在某些南亞語言中,氣嗓與實嗓所發的音是不同的。例如,在印度話與晤魯都語(Urdu)bhgh指的是加上氣嗓的塞音。而[b][g]則屬實嗓的音。


虛嗓是由聲帶肌肉內收作用,且聲帶在杓狀軟骨間維持打開的狀態時,經由大量氣流通過所形成。假聲帶的內收作用也可使聲門氣流通道變窄,並阻止真聲帶振動。虛嗓的特色為在聲門有大量的亂流。聲門部位的開口很小,使氣流的速率變低。(Catford,大約是每秒25立方公分) 虛嗓是有效的聲源。

4 爆嗓


5 假聲


6 哨聲


Classification of articulation

Consonant parameters (continued)

Manners of articulation

Manner of artiulation is the type of closure made by the articulators and the degree of the obstruction of the airstream by those articulators.

Constriction degree

Place of articulation refers to where the narrowing occurs -- which active articulator gets close to which passive articulator. Constriction degree refers to how close they get. The main constriction degrees are:

  • stop: the active articulator touches the passive articulator and completely cuts off the airflow through the mouth. English stops include: [p]、[d]、[k]、[m].
  • fricative: the active articulator doesn't touch the passive articulator、but gets close enough that the airflow through the opening becomes turbulent. English fricatives include [f]、[edh]、[z].
  • approximant: the active articulator approaches the passive articulator、but doesn't even get close enough for the airflow to become turbulent. English approximants include [j]、[w]、[turnr]、and [l].
  • affricate: Affricates can be seen as a sequence of a stop and a fricative which have the same or similar places of articulation. They are transcribed using the symbols for the stop and the fricative. If one wants to emphasize the affricate as a "single" sound、a tie symbol can be used to join the stop and the fricative (sometimes the fricative is written as a superscript).


  • A stop cuts off airflow through the mouth . Airflow through the nose does not matter -- you can have both oral and nasal stops. Oral stops are often called plosives、including in the IPA chart. Nasal stops are usually just call ed nasals.
  • Approximants that are apical or laminal are often called liquids (e.g.、[turnr]、[l]). Approximants that correspond to vowels are often called glides (e.g.、[j] corresponds to [i]、[w] to [u]).
  • English has the affricates [tS] and [dZ]. The stop and the fricative halves of these affricates are at the same place of articulation: the stop is in fact postalveolar rather than alveolar. We could be explicit about this and underline the [t] and [d] (in IPA、a minus sign under a symbol is a diacritic meaning "pronounced further back in the mouth")、but most phoneticians believe this difference in the place of articulation is so predictable that it doesn't have to be marked.

State of the glottis

For now、we can simply use the terms "voiced" and "voiceless" to answer the question of what the vocal cords are doing:

  • In voiced sounds、the vocal cords are vibrating.
  • In voiceless sounds、the vocal cords are not vibrating.

Ultimately、we will see there are different ways of being voiced or voiceless. The vocal cords can do a number of things. They can:

  • be held so wide apart that the air makes no sound passing through them. (This is nice when you have to breathe 24 hours a day、but not as useful for speaking.)
  • be held closer together、so that the air passing through them becomes turbulent. This quality of sound is called breathiness. It is what is happening in apsiration and in the sound [h].
  • be held together so that the air passing through them causes them to vibrate. This is called voicing.
  • be held together so tightly that no air can pass through at all、as in a glottal stop.

(By varying their tension and position、the vocal cords can also produce many other effects like breathy voicing、creaky voicing、and falsetto.)

What the vocal cords are doing is independent of what the higher parts of the vocal tract are doing. For any place of articulation and any degree of stricture、you can get two different sounds: voiced and voiceless. For example、[t] and [d] are formed identically in the mouth; the difference is that the vocal cords vibrate during a [d] but not during a [t]. (The obvious exception is the glottal place of articulation -- you can't vibrate your vocal cords while making a glottal stop.)

In each cell of the IPA chart、the symbol for the voiceless sound is shown to the left and that for the voiced sound to the right. Some rows only have voiced symbols (e.g.、nasals and approximants). You can write the corresponding voiceless sound using the voiceless diacritic (a circle under the voiced symbol).



The soft palate can be lowered、allowing air to flow out through the nose、or it can be raised to block nasal airflow. As was the case with the vocal cords、what the soft palate is doing is independent the other articulators. For almost any place of articulation、there are pairs of stops that differ only in whether the soft palate is raised、as in the oral stop [d]、or lowered、as in the nasal stop [n].



When you form an [l]、your tongue tip touches your alveolar ridge (or maybe your upper teeth) but it doesn't create a stop because one or both sides of the tongue are lowered so that air can flow out along the side. Sounds like this with airflow along the sides of the tongue are called lateral、all others are called central (though we usually just assume that a sound is central unless we explicitly say it's lateral).

The side of the tongue can lower to different degrees. It can lower so little that the air passing through becomes turbulent (giving a lateral fricative like [belted-l] or [l-ezh]) or it can lower enough for there to be no turbulence (a lateral approximant). The [l] of English is a lateral approximant.

Airstream mechanism

Speech sounds need air to move. Most sounds (including all the sounds of English) are created by modifying a stream of air that is pushed outward from the lungs. But it's possible for the air to be set in motion in other ways. Sounds which use one of the other three most common airstream mechanisms are called ejectivesimplosives、and clicks. We'll discuss these possibilities later in the course.

Describing consonant segments

A consonant sound can be described completely by specifying each of the parameters for place and manner of articulation. For example、[k] has the following properties:


active articulator tongue body (dorsum)  
passive articulator soft palate (velum)  
constriction degree stop  
state of glottis voiceless  
nasal no  
lateral no  
airstream mechanism normal  

So [k] is a voiceless oral central dorso-velar stop.





Resonance 共鳴 

1 原理

任何一個能振動的物體和系統都具有一個自然頻率( natural frequency):也就是當外來的力量促使該物體或系統產生自然頻率的振動時共振便產生了 ,共振的結果是音量的提高及某些音調的加強

有些物體也會具有許多不同的自然頻率因為它既可以做整體振動也可以做部分的振動 ,這些頻率中最低的一個是最基本的,稱之為泛音( fundamental frequency);而基音的倍數 ,稱之為泛音群,也就是由物體各部分分別產生振盪的頻率

空氣柱(air colum)也具有自然頻率如弦樂器(string instrument)是靠弦的振動來引發其空腔內的空氣振動而產生音樂 ,而管樂器(wind instrument) 則是靠管中規則振動的空氣柱來發出音樂.增加空氣柱自然頻率振動就可以產生共振

任何被包圍起來的空氣都具有它本身的自然頻率大房子的自然頻率很低 ,人類無法感覺到,而浴室這樣的小房間 ,它所產生的自然頻率剛好與人類聽覺範圍的頻率產生共振,因此 ,歌聲中的某些音調頻率會促使浴室產生共鳴的現象

Further Information




2 樂器的共鳴

樂器是利用共振的原理來增加它的音量和決定它的音色(tone quality),弦樂器是將弦與共鳴箱連接在一起 ,小提琴上的琴弦,是在共鳴箱上被拉開而繫於共鳴箱的兩端,這樣的裝置是為了能夠擴大弦的振動而設計的何種泛音群能夠引起最強烈的振動,音色的好壞主要決定於泛音群之間相互加強部分的分布情形 ,當樂器被彈奏時,整個樂器會隨著弦和共鳴器一起振動,因此,所使用的材料 油漆 樂器的外形以及其他的因素,都會對共振產生微妙的影響,就管樂器來看 ,管子的長度決定了內部空氣的自然頻率,管子的外貌,則會影響到泛音彼此的加強的相關性,甚至一個簧片,也有助於內部空氣柱的振動





3 發聲共振體

當我們說話時,肺會壓縮肺部的空氣 ,使之流經聲帶,由聲帶引發各種頻率的振動 ,這些不同的頻率依次引發喉嚨 嘴巴 鼻子內部的空氣發生振動,此時,位於頭部的堅硬上顎與骨骼組織也會跟著振動 ,利用嘴形和舌頭位置的變更可以改變振動的頻率,所以每一種母音會有一個不同的共振頻率,而這個頻率就是所謂的共振峰(formant)。

Further Information



從聲門到嘴唇或鼻孔的吹氣通道可視為共鳴體有共鳴 ,擴音的效果,這個吹氣的通道叫做聲道。(Vocal Tract)


蘇義彬: 實驗語音學序說美亞書版股份有限公司, 1972



因聲道構形的改變音壓產生變化 ,結果如下圖:







3.3 聲道擬製電阻回路

音壓在聲道內的變化可以變換為電器抵抗量計算電阻擬製回路(stimulation circuit) 如下圖:

由一端導入Buzz或單純音由聲道出口端導出其合成音波經音譜看 ,也可以看出音波共鳴節,如下圖:


3.4 聲音的變動型態

共鳴體分為開放性與閉塞性管道(瞬間性及過度性)聲道型態有變動要素 ,聲音也有變動型態,


音聲變動之因素由共鳴節的位置及相對比例造成理論上變動位置有無限數實際上每種語言中 ,僅有40種聲音,因此,由無限制位置中選出特定的位置 ,稱之為構音




Articulation 構音


1Articulation in articulatory phonetics

1.1 Basic Manners of Articulation

stops (oral stops and nasal stops), fricatives, affricates, liquids, glides

Stricture Types

There are two strictures types: one is maintainable type and the other is momentary stricture type. The former refers to those in which the essential articulatory posture can be held for a considerable time; the latter refers to those whose articulation is essentially a momentary gesture, not a maintainable posture- that is, an approach, and /or release with no intervening hold.

Maintainable stricture type:

stops, fricative, affricates, approximants ,trill, obstruent and non-obstruent

Momentary(non-maintainable) stricture type:

tap, flap, semivowel


Catford, J. C.1989. A practical introduction to Phonetics . New York: Oxford U. P.

1.2 Basic Place of Articulation




2 Articulation in Acoustic Phonetics

2.1合成聲音(synthetic voice)

蘇義彬: 實驗語音學序說

(i) Cineradiography- Perkell利用電影X光撮影法測定共鳴管徑度長度以及構音點的變動型態

(ii) Acoustic theory of speech production- Funt依共鳴的理論計算共鳴音計測各種變動型態的共鳴效果

(iii)Electroacoustic method- Flanagan將電阻抗力計算應用在共鳴理論上


共鳴管的型態設計複雜無法用計算方法一一算出電阻力所以用電腦計算 ,Bell 研究所的Display 聲道就是使用電腦計算合成聲音法製作而成,聲道用方格上的點表示,各點有各點的電阻係數,其排列的組態(pattern)所產生的聲音效果即可在存檔後列印出來

2.3母音性構音(Vowel Articulation)






母音的共鳴節數通常有5-6個以上主形成音波是F1F2(and F3);副母音形成音包括F3以上Fn 副母音形成音是個人聲音音色要素,F1 F2 影響合成音音質,F3 多少有些影響,F1F2 的合成音(複合音波)即能造成母音的差別


鼻咽腔作振幅壓抑效果當波形漸漸增加Damping,聲音越接近鼻音 ,與母音的形成音比較: F1, F2,F3較弱化; F4 較強化

2.3.3 流音-

主要形成波形與母音相差不大F3,F4,Fn 等等構成比較複雜 ,波形的特徵是,高音部分的集合體形成抗共鳴作用( Anti-resonance)。


母音的種類是由共振峰組態不同而成屬於“F-形態”語音,子音是雜音性語音 ,變化迅速,不能用共鳴管模型實驗通常使用Sonagraph (Potter,1945)方法比較有利.




Sonagraph 的原理如圖適用於子音的分析:音聲變化用時間(X/msec)及周波速度化用(Y/ frequency in Hz),音強變化即座標點的濃淡表示

2.4.1 磨擦性子音- Spectrum, 2000Hz~4000Hz 之間有雲團性模樣(Hiss)

2.4.2 閉鎖性子音- Sonagraph 上可以看出一條垂直性的Spectrum

2.4.3 變移部: 音與音之間的連續發生過渡音歪現象Sonagraph spectrum 歪曲的部分叫做變移部( Transition),較常發生於母音F2 部分,子音在Sonagraph 上呈現雜亂性的Spectrum,僅由變移部的變化可以聽出



Temporal Coordination 時序協調

1 Suprasegmentals 超音段

超音段成分 (超音段圖表) 又稱節律特徵是一種附加在音節上的其他語音特徵,包括重音、音調或單音連音,通常認為音長也屬於超音段成份;這些特徵不局限於單個語音,其常擴展到音節和詞上.西班牙語的重音常用來區別詞義,例如: término “術語”之意,而 termino “我把…稱為…”之意, terminó 又表示“我把…稱為…(過去式)的意思漢語普通話的聲調也是一種超音段,shao 發高平調時,是 ()燒” 的意思;發高升調時,是“杓”的意思;發降升調時,是“()少”的意思;而發全降調時,是“()紹”的意思

2 Secondary Articulation 次要發音

Secondary Articulation:

The formal definition of a secondary articulation is that it is an articulation with a lesser degree of closure occurring at the same time as another (primary) articulation;opposed to primary articulation.

Five types of secondary articulation:

1. Palatalization    2.Velarization     3.Pharyngealization     4.Labialization

5. Rhotacization


Further Information:




Labialized: Simultaneous lip-rounding, e.g. [tw ]

Pharyngalized: Simultaneous compression of pharynxsymbolized as for velarized.

Palatalized: Simultaneous raising of tongue dorsum towards the hard palate, e.g. [pj]

Velarized: Simultaneous raising of tongue dorsum towards the velum.


Catford, J.C. 1988. A Practical Introduction to Phonetics. Clarendon: Oxford.

3 Coarticulation 協同構音

What is Coarticulation?

An articulation which takes place involving in a simultaneous or overlapping way more than one point in the vocal tract. When two adjacent sounds are coarticulated、one sound segment tends to be assimilated by another sound.  Consonants vary their place of articulation so that they become more like the neighboring sound. Coarticulation may be generally defined as "the overlapping of adjacent articulations" (Ladefoged 1993: 55) or as two articulators "moving at the same time for different phonemes" (Borden and Harris 1984:130).

The classification of coarticulation:

Based on the direction of the modification effect、there are two types of coarticulation: anticipatory coarticulation and perseverative coarticulation.

1. anticipatory coarticulation: an articulator not involved in a particular sound begins to move in the direction of an articulation neededfor a later sound; a sound is affected by its following sound.

for example、the rounding of the lips during [s] in "swim" is due to the anticipation of the lip action required for [w].  

2. perseverative coarticulation: the persistence of an aspect of the articulation of one sound into the following sound; that is 、a sound is affected by its preceding sound.

for example、the nasalization of a vowel after a  nasal consonant.

e.g. when 「it is』 [It Iz] is elided into [Its],the voicelessness associated with the [t] persists into the next sound. This is known as preservative coarticulation.

e.g. the word "dogs" is pronounced  [dOgz] where  the ending  [s] is assimilated to [z] by the influence of the preceding voiced [g].

in general、English may be said to be an anticipatory language—that is、one in which the articulations of the sounds yet to come are anticipated to some extent. some other languages、such as french or italian、are more preservative in that the articulation of one sound tends to persevere、or continue、into the following sound.

further reading:

 Ladeforged、Peter. 2001.A Course in Phonetics . 4th.ed. Harcourt College Publishers.




  Voice Quality and Paralinguistic Expressions  


1 Factors of Voice Quality 音質的要素



  1. 音高:顫動次數的多寡。

  2. 音量:顫動波幅的大小。

  3. 音長:顫動時間久暫。

  4. 音色:顫動形式的差異。


Related factors:有三種型式:(i)~(iii)

(i) length of vocal tract 聲道的長度



口腔 是由頰部、舌及硬軟顎構成。頰的前端止於上下唇,而頰與唇也幫助發音。


鼻腔 包括外鼻部和位於頭蓋骨的內鼻部。外鼻部以鼻骨和軟骨為支架;內鼻部的前面與外鼻部相連,後面經由兩個內鼻孔與咽相通。外鼻部和內鼻部構成鼻腔,其當作聲音的共鳴箱。


又稱音箱,是連接咽與氣管的一條短小通道。它位於頸部中央,喉咽的前面,約在第四到第六頸椎的高度。喉壁由9塊軟骨構成支架: 甲狀軟骨、會厭軟骨、環狀軟骨、杓狀軟骨、小角軟骨和楔狀軟骨。其中的杓狀軟骨與聲帶和喉肌相連,杓狀軟骨的運動可帶動聲帶。

喉的黏膜形成兩對皺襞,在上者為前庭皺襞(Vestibular folds),此為假聲帶(False vocal cords);在下者為聲帶皺襞(Vocal folds),為真聲帶(True vocal cords)。喉本身的骨骼肌為內在肌,附著於軟骨和聲帶上。這些肌肉的收縮可改變聲帶的張力和聲門裂的大小。當空氣流過聲帶時,會引起聲帶的震動,而在咽、鼻腔、口腔中的氣柱產生聲波。空氣的壓力越大,產生的聲音越大。





(ii) arrangement of articulators 構音器官的排列



上構音器官可細分為唇部(Labial Division)和頂部(Tectal Division);唇部包括外唇(Outer Lip)和內唇(Inner Lip)。而頂部包括齒顎部份(Dentalveolar Region)及口頂部份(Domal Region)。齒顎部份包括上齒和齒槽;口頂部份包括硬顎、軟顎和懸雍垂。







顎裂是一種先天性畸形,有時與兔唇一起發生。嚴重時可能整個顎部縱向全裂,不過大部分的情形是單純的軟顎裂:最輕微的情況則是只有懸壅垂 (小舌) 有裂縫。兔唇或顎裂如果沒有治好,患者會發生語言障礙。另外,患者的音色也會異於常人,也就是鼻音很重。由於嘴唇撕裂,導致說出來的音偏向鼻音,也會產生攝食困難,外觀畸型,牙齒及臉骨發育異常,聽力障礙,






(iii) habitual use of phonation types 慣用發聲類型


  1. 無帶聲 (Voicelessness):發此種語音時,聲門張開,不振動聲帶,讓氣流無阻礙地流出。在英文中,﹝f,s,p,t,k﹞為此類型。

(2) 悄聲說話(Whisper):發此種語音時,聲門變窄,使得不穩定的氣流由聲門流出,並產生〝噓〞的聲響。不依靠聲帶的振動來說話,而是利用呼氣產生的輕柔嘶嘶聲,像平時那樣靠牙齒、舌頭、嘴唇、和顎部的動作形成語言。悄聲說話時,要把聲帶繃緊,不讓它振動。這和患喉炎而失聲時情況是一樣的,那時聲帶因為發炎,也不能如常振動。

  1. 帶聲 (Voice):發此種語音時,聲門變窄,氣流由聲門流出的同時振動聲帶。在英文中,﹝v,z,m,l,i,a,u﹞為此類型。

  2. 輾軋聲(Creak): 發此種語音時,聲帶閉鎖,但仍讓氣流由聲門前半部末端流出,此時聲門會有輕微的振動,而發出低頻的爆破聲。


Catford, J.C. 1988. A Practical Introduction to Phonetics. Clarendon: Oxford.


2 Description of Voice Quality 音質描述


2.1 breathiness 漏氣音


2.2 nasalization 鼻音

此種語音發音時,口腔的軟顎下降而氣流由鼻腔逸出例如英文中的m, nng 三個音就是鼻音,這些音發音時,舌和唇使口腔的某一部份形成阻塞,使氣流完全由鼻腔流出在法語、葡萄牙語和許多語言裡,鼻音化是普遍現象

2.3 dullness 口齒不清

口吃 (結巴)


2.4 strong resonance 低沉的聲音

2.5 silvery voice 銀鈴般的聲音

2.6 sexy voice 性感的聲音


3 Voice Qualifications 不同的聲音表情

3.1 laugh 笑聲

3.2 cry 哭聲

3.3 tremulousness 顫抖聲

3.4 sob 啜泣聲

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