語 言 學 專 題 演 講
Reversibility of Target State and the Semantics of the Experimental "Guo"
This paper argues that the experiential guo predicates on an event type and that it cannot predicate on an event token. An event type is an eventuality with a reversible target state and an event token is an eventuality with an irreversible target state. Two types of target state are distinguished: one is the state of the situation being ongoing (being Ving) and the other a change of state (CoS), similar to the target state defined in Parsons (1990). If an eventuality has both a CoS target state and a being Ving target state, reversibility of target state is satisfied both the being Ving target state and the CoS target state being reversible. If the CoS target state is irreversible, then the CoS target state must allow for the possibility to be coerced to become reversible by reversibility of the being Ving target state. If neither of these two types of target state is reversible, this kind of eventuality is an event token and cannot be presented by guo. The properties of guo, such as a ‘class’ meaning, discontinuity and recurrence, all follow naturally from the event type vs. token distinction and reversibility of target state.