Hokan languages

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The Hokan language family is a hypothetical grouping of a dozen small language families spoken in California and Mexico. In nearly a century since the "Hokan" hypothesis first proposed these families were related to each other, little additional evidence has been found. Although some Hokan families may indeed be related, especially in northern California, few linguists today expect Hokan as a whole to prove to be valid, and the term is often used as a convenient label to simplify one of the most linguistically diverse areas of the world.

The name Hokan is loosely based on the word for "two" in the various Hokan languages: *xwak in Proto-Yuman, c-oocj (IPA: [k-oːkx]) in Seri, hak in Achumawi, etc.

Hokan languages are spoken by the Pomo on the California coast, as well as by other Native American nations around Mount Shasta, Lake Tahoe, and the Yuman peoples along the lower Colorado River. Some linguists also include Chumash or other families, but the evidence is insubstantial, and most now restrict Hokan to some or all of the languages listed below.

The Yurumanguí language of Colombia was claimed to be Hokan by Rivet (1942). This claim has not been accepted by historical linguists