2.      The Ge-Pano-Carib group of nearly 200 languages is spoken east of the Andes(安地斯山脈) along most of the length of the continent and along the Brazilian Amazon basin.  It has a very small number of speakers (perhaps a million) for such a vast area.  The Carib family, within this group, is one of the largest in South America, containing over80 langeages spoken by tiny numbers throughout the whole northern region.  Only Carib itself has as many as 5,000 speakers.  Macro-Panoan, also within this group, is a family of about 70 languages spoken from Peru and Bolivia eastward to Brazil, and southward to Paraguay (巴拉圭)and Argentina.   Mataco, spoken mainly in northern Argentina and Paraguay, is the only language with more than 10,000 speakers.