3.      The Andean-Equatorial group consists of about 250 languages, and contains many sub-divisions.  Within the Equatorial division, for example, there is the Arawakan group, which once extended into North America, and is still widespread, being spoken from Central America to Southern Brazil.  Goajiro (over 40,000) is its main member.  Within the Andean division, the Quechumaran group is preeminent in the Andes highlands between Colombia and Argentina.  Aymará was once a major language throughout the central Andes, but is now restricted to around 600,000 speakers in Bolivia and Peru.  Quechua, the official language of the Incas, is now spoken by over 6 million from Colombia to Chile.  It is widely used as a lingua franca, and its literary history dates from the 17th century.  In the south, in Paraguay, the Indian languages of Guaraní (a member of the Tupí family)is spoken by perhaps three million people (mainly non-Indians), and is the majority language to achieve such a status.  By contrast, over a dozen Tupian languages have become extinct in the first half of this century.