Preliminaries to Speech Analysis

The Distinctive Features and their Correlates

By Roman Jakobson,

C. Gunnar M. Fant and Morris Halle




& 目錄



I The Concept of the Distinctive Feature

1.1 Resolving Speech into Ultimate Units

1.2 Invariance and Redundant Variations

1.3 Identification of Distinctive Features

1.4 Inherent and Prosodic Distinctive Features

1.5 The Distinctive Features Compared to Other Sound Features


II A Tentative Survey of the Distinctive Features

2.1 Prefatory Acoustical Remarks

2.1.1 Properties of the Source function Utilized in Language Type of Source Number of Sources Transient Effects

2.1.2 Transfer Functions Utilized in Language Properties Location of Source Shape of the Vocal Tract

2.1.3 Neutral Position of the Vocal Tract

2.1.4 Phoneme Boundaries

2.2 Fundamental Source features

2.2.1 Vocalic vs. Non-Vocalic

2.2.2 Consonantal vs. Non-Consonantal Vowels and Consonants Liquids Glides Production Perception Occurrence

2.3 Secondary Consonantal Features

2.3.1 Envelope Features Interrupted vs. Continuant Stimulus Production Perception Occurrence Double Stops Checked vs. Unchecked Stimulus Production Occurrence

2.3.2 Strident vs. Mellow Stimulus Production Occurrence

2.3.3 Supplementary SourceVoiced vs. Unvoiced Stimulus Production Occurrence

2.4 Resonance Features

2.4.1 Compact vs. Diffuse Stimulus Production Perception Occurrence

2.4.2 Tonality Features Grave vs. Acute Stimulus Production Sharp vs. Plain Stimulus Production Perception of Tonality Features Occurrence of Tonality Features The Primary Tonality Feature The Secondary Tonality Features

2.4.3 Tense vs. Lax Stimulus Production Perception Occurrence

2.4.4 Supplementary ResonatorNasal vs. Oral Stimulus Production Occurrence

2.5 Conclusion