Formal Phonology







I.                  Definition of Formal Language

Formal Language is a Language generated by a formal grammar ( A fully explicit device which specifies, for a given initial set of elements, the complete set of strings of those elements which are in the language defined by the grammar.  A grammar which is fully formal constitutes a linguistic use of what mathematicians and logicians call a formal system.  Most contemporary approaches to grammar purport to be formal in this sense, at least in principle, thought in practice some frameworks are considerably more explicit than others.).  A formal language may or may not resemble a natural language; one of the goals of grammatical investigation is the construction of grammars which generate formal languages resembling natural languages as closely as possible.

Chomsky (1964: 915) 使用Competence Performance來重新詮釋SaussureLangueParole所表達的觀念。ChomskyCompetence的觀念包含不可縮減的語言核心,也就是指,形式語法(Formal grammer)所描述那些形成自主的,純粹語言學的系統特徵方面的事項。所以,Compentence是許多促成Performace其中的一個系統。



II.  Important People and Readings:    

1.     Wim Zonnefeld

Formal Theory of Exceptions in Generative Phonology 

2. Wim de. Haas

A Formal Theory of Vowel Coalescence: A Case Study of Ancient Greek

III. References

1. Cann, Ronnie. 1993. Formal Semantics: An Introduction. Cambridge.

2. Hyman, Larry M. 1975. Phonology Theory and Analysis. Uni. Of Southern California.

3. Katamba, Francis. 1989. An Introduction to Phonology. London: Routledge.

4. Murray, James A. H. & Henry Bradley & W. A. Craigie & C. T. Onions. 1989. The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

5. Newmeyer, Frederick J. 1997. Linguistic Theory in America.

6.     Trask, R. L. 1993. A Dictionary of Grammatical Terms in Lingustics. London: Routledge.