書名: On Aphasia
作者: Sigm. Freud / E. Stengel (Translator)
出版資訊: First Publish in German in 1891
1953 International Univ. Press Inc. New York
Introduction by the Translator.
The current theory of aphasia.
Wernick’s sensory aphasia.
Nerve cells as storing places of impressions.
Conduction aphasia and center aphasia.
Lichtheim’s elaboration of Wernick’s theory.
Livhtheim’s seven forms of aphasia.
The value of Lichtheim’s schema.
Objections to Lichthemi’s schema.
The differentiation between center aphasia and conduction aphasia. Critique of Wernick’s conduction aphasia which cannot be derived from the schema.
The questions of aphasia due to lesion of the insula. Paraphasia is not a focal symptom.
The speech disorders associated with lesions of Wernick’s area. Wernicks’ explanation.
Clinical observation provides no evidence for the psychological significance of centers.
Watteville’s attempt at defining center aphasia.
Doubts in the validity of a schema based on localization.
The significance of Lichtheim’s syllable test.
Rejection of a direct trace for spontaneous speech.
The sensory speech disorder is more than paraphasia.
Definition of paraphasia.
The origin of Lichtheim’s transcortical motor aphasia.
Magnan’s and Hammond’s cases.
Transcortical motor aphasia may be caused by lesion in the motor or sensory area.
It results from a lowering of the functional state of the center. Bastian’s three levels of excitability.
Reaction of the speech apparatus to partially destructive lesions.
Destructive of Wernick’s area without word deafness.
Rejection of localization as explanatory principle.
The effect of shortening of the perception time.
Naming with the help of the first letter of the required word.
Critique of Grashey’s explanation.
The need for assuming a localized lesion.
Grashey’s case illustrates one of Bastian’s modifications of the function of the auditory center.
The significance of Grashey’s observation for the understanding of alexia.
The significance of Bastian’s modifications
Centres separated by an unoccupied area.
Meynert’s theory of the organization of the brain.
The projection of the body in the cortex.
Meynert’s theory in the light of recent advances in brain anatomy. Projection and representation.
Reduction of fibre tracts grey masses.
The change of the functional significance of fibres on their way to the cortex.
The body is not represented topographically in the cerebral cortex.
The localization of psychic elements is the result of a confusion of ‘psychic’ and ‘physical’.
The impossibility of a separation of idea and association.
The association tracts are situated in the cortex itself.
The hypothesis of “functionless gaps”.
The role of the “functionless gaps”.
Association and superassociation.
Speech remnants and “last word”.
The speech region as a continuous cortical area.
The centres are the corner stones of the speech region.
The centers have a significance only from the point of view of morbid anatomy.
Consequences of the unilaterality of the speech region.
The speech region has no special efferent pathways.
All aphasias are due to interruption of conducting fibre tracts.
The subcortical sensory aphasia.
Gireaudau’s case of partial word deafness.
Difficulties in the explanation of the subcortical sensory aphasia and a theory of its origin.
Subcortical motor aphasia and anarthria.
The word concept.
The process of association in speaking and reading.
The process of association of in reading and writing.
Word concept and object concept.
The three kinds of aphasia.
Anatomical schema of the speech apparatus.
Mixed asymbolic-verbal aphasia.
The so-called optic aphasia.
The reaction of the speech apparatus to lesions situated centrally in the speech region.
Functional factors inherent in an apparatus of association.
Functional modifications of the acoustic element.
Partial word deafness.
Modification of the visual element.
The so-called subcortical alexia.
Explanation of the subcortical alexia.
Disorders of reading.
The motor element of the speech associations.
Problems of the motor aphasia.
Charcot’s theory of individual variations in the association of speech.
~節自 《On Aphasia》一書 introduction 部份